As Kofi Annan aptly noted, "No one is born a good citizen; no nation is born a democracy." Africa has long grappled with the challenges of democracy, military rule, and political instability. The Freedom House 2019 Democracy Index paints a complex picture, with only 17% of African states classified as full democracies, 45% as mixed systems, and 38% as hard autocracies. This underscores the continent's ongoing struggle for democratization amid a multitude of challenges.
The African continent's journey toward stable democracy is critical not only for its own development but also for its standing in the global arena. As former Ghanaian President John Dramani Mahama observed, democracy yields a "dividend" of economic progress, good governance, and human rights, creating a favourable environment for investment and innovation.
Sudan Conflict as a Case Study for African Democracy
Since mid-April, Sudan has been at the centre of global attention due to a conflict that has claimed over 600 lives and forced thousands to flee. This conflict revolves around control of Sudan, pitting the Sudanese military against a paramilitary group known as the Rapid Support Forces (RSF). Sudan has struggled to transition back to civilian rule since the overthrow of President Omar al-Bashir in a military coup.
The tumultuous history of Sudan has left an indelible mark on the current crisis. Despite its economic and environmental potential, Sudan grapples with severe poverty rates. The ongoing power struggle among Sudan's factions has hindered the nation's progress, underscoring the challenge of consolidating power under a single authority.
The recent violence in Sudan's capital, Khartoum, poses a significant setback to the country's democratic aspirations. Beyond the immediate human tragedy, this conflict threatens to have profound economic, political, and diplomatic consequences. The international community has called for a return to peace, emphasizing the need for unhindered humanitarian access.
Impact on the Sahel Region and International Efforts
The Sudan conflict's repercussions extend beyond its borders, particularly affecting neighbouring nations in the Horn of Africa, such as Libya, Chad, Sudan, and the Central African Republic. These countries already grapple with security challenges, and the unrest in Sudan serves as a stark reminder of how political power struggles that reject democracy can endanger not just one nation but the entire African continent.
The global community has been actively engaged with both conflicting parties to facilitate the restoration of peace in the region. This effort is particularly critical given the challenges it poses to the delivery of humanitarian assistance. In a tweet, the U.S. Secretary General, Antony Blinken, issued a stern message, emphasizing that the time has come to put an end to hostilities and ensure unimpeded access to humanitarian aid. He urged both sides to uphold their commitment to this agreement, underscoring that the world is closely monitoring the situation.
Lessons for Democratic Countries
African nations have faced intra-state conflicts and economic challenges since the end of the Cold War, raising questions about the ideal form of governance. Despite some nations flirting with military rule, the majority acknowledged that democracy offers the best path forward, considering the drawbacks of military regimes. Africa's youth and emerging leaders should heed the lessons unfolding on the continent.
Sudan's political instability should serve as a cautionary tale for those who advocate for military or authoritarian rule. As Africa seeks to regain control of its resources, it must confront its political turmoil. Failure to address governance and political structures will only lead to continued finger-pointing at industrialized nations regarding internal and foreign issues.
Conclusion and the Way Forward
African nations must prioritize improving their governance systems to address both internal and external challenges. Ensuring security for all is paramount, aligning with the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. If the majority of African nations collaborate to enhance security and support growth, the continent can overcome its difficulties and grow stronger.
Rapid interventions are necessary to tackle security issues in the region. By learning from the Sudan conflict and working together, African nations can move closer to realizing their democratic aspirations and achieving sustainable development.